Ranchi is the capital of the Indian state of jharkhand. Ranchi was the centre of the Jharkhand movement, which called for a separate state for the tribal regions of South Bihar, northern Orissa, western West Bengal and the eastern area of what is present-day Chhattisgarh. The Jharkhand state was formed on 15 November 2000 by carving out the Bihar divisions of Chota Nagpur and Santhal Parganas.
In 2011, Ranchi had population of 2,914,253 of which male and female were 1,494,937 and 1,419,316 respectively. In 2001 census, Ranchi had a population of 2,350,612 of which males were 1,218,830 and remaining 1,131,782 were females. There was change of 23.98 percent in the population compared to population as per 2001. In the previous census of India 2001, Ranchi District recorded increase of 28.58 percent to its population compared to 1991.
Average literacy rate of Ranchi in 2011 were 76.06 compared to 66.71 of 2001. If things are looked out at gender wise, male and female literacy were 84.26 and 67.44 respectively. For 2001 census, same figures stood at 78.18 and 54.27 in Ranchi District. Total literate in Ranchi District were 1,911,433 of which male and female were 1,085,244 and 826,189 respectively. In 2001, Ranchi District had 1,308,516 in its district.
Ranchi lies at 23º22’N 85º20’E near to the Tropic of Cancer. Its municipal area is 175.12 km2 (67.61 sq mi), and its average elevation is 651 m above sea level. Ranchi is surrounded by lush agriculturally fertile land. Ranchi is located in the southern part of the Chota Nagpur plateau, which is the eastern section of the Deccan plateau.
Ranchi has a hilly topography and its dense tropical forests a combination that produces a relatively moderate climate compared to the rest of the state. However, due to the uncontrolled deforestation, and development of the city, the average temperature has increased
Although Ranchi has a humid subtropical climate, its location and the forests surrounding it combine to produce the unusually pleasant climate for which it’s known. Summer temperatures range from 20 °C to 42 degrees, winter temperatures from 0 °C to 25 degrees. December and January are the coolest months, with temperatures dipping to the freezing point in some areas. The annual rainfall is about 1430 mm (56.34 inches). From June to September the rainfall is about 1,100 mm.
Ranchi has been influenced by Buddhism, Jainism, the Mughals and Hindu kings. Tribal groups during the Sarhul festival gather in Ranchi and organise a procession. Traditional folk music, instruments and dances are the norm. The area is known for the Dokra art form while festivals such as Basant Panchami, Holi, Diwali, Chath, Jityya Bhaiya are celebrated here. Some of the popular dance forms are Chhau and Santhal, which are group dances performed by the Santhal tribe.
Karma is another popular folk dance performed in the month of August during the Karma festival. The popular cuisines include local varieties such as Arsa, Dhuska, Chhilka, Chhilka, besides others. Due to its thick foliage local people have made use of bamboo and wood to create craftworks like baskets, hunting and fishing equipment, rice huskers et al. Wild grass called ‘sabai grass’ is dyed and woven into bowls, pen-stands, coasters, mats, colorful boxes, dolls, etc. ‘Pattal’ or plates are fashioned from Sal leaves in addition, a variety of handiwork bearing tribal motifs like wood inlay boxes, combs, carved door panels, bowl shaped umbrellas, tribal theme toys and carvings, plus ancient ‘bird-woman’ figurines are available in the local bazaars.
Ranchi has been climbing up the progressive curve in terms of infrastructure and industrial growth marked by many shopping malls, fast food joints and multiplexes with Mitra and Navin markets noted for good bargains.
Air: Birsa Munda Airport (Airport Code IXR) of Ranchi has direct flights from Kolkata, Delhi, Mumbai, Bangalore, Patna, Hyderabad, Bhubaneswar Major airlines like Air India, GoAir, Indigo, SpiceJet, Vistara and Air Asia do connect Ranchi. Plans are underway to connect Ranchi directly with cities like Chennai and Ahmedabad directly. The new domestic terminal, now operational 24 hours, is spread over 19,676 square meters of land furnished with imported equipment, and has the capacity to handle 500 domestic passengers.
Railways: Ranchi Railway Station (Station Code RNC) is well connected with direct trains from Delhi, Kolakata, Mumbai, Chennai and other major cities. It consists of six platforms with all standard necessities. It is well connected to Ranchi Airport and Bus Terminals. The Ranchi Railway station caters to 36 halting trains, 27 originating trains and 27 terminating trains. Another smaller station, Hatia railway Station, also serves the city and is the originating/terminating station for most trains connecting the city.
Road: Ranchi is well linked to other major cities by a series of National Highway Roads.
- National Highway 33
- National Highway 39
- National Highway 20
- National Highway 43
- National Highway 320
Census Data of Ranchi 2011:
|Area Sq. Km||5,097||5,097|
|Proportion to Jharkhand Population||8.83%||8.72%|
|Sex Ratio (Per 1000)||949||929|
|Child Sex Ratio (0-6 Age)||938||960|
|Total Child Population (0-6 Age)||401,214||389,107|
|Male Population (0-6 Age)||207,029||198,518|
|Female Population (0-6 Age)||194,185||190,589|
|Child Proportion (0-6 Age)||13.77%||16.55%|
|Boys Proportion (0-6 Age)||13.85%||16.29%|
|Girls Proportion (0-6 Age)||13.68%||16.84%|
|Not Stated||11,345||0.39 %|
Source: Census 2011, https://ranchi.nic.in/culture-heritage/ & en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ranchi